Present Perfect I

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
His shoes are dirty.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
They are at home.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
He is cleaning his shoes.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
They are going out.

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
He has cleaned his shoes.
(= his shoes are clean now)

Unit 15. I have done (Present Perfect I)
They have gone out.
(= they are not at home now)


has cleaned/ have gone etc. is the Present Perfect ( have/ has + Past Participle*):

I

bracket to table

have (`ve)
have not (haven`t)

clean ed

we

finish ed

you

done

they

been

he

bracket to table

has (`s)
has not (hasn`t)

bought

she

taken

it

begun

have

another bracket to table

I

clean ed?

we

finish ed?

you

done?

they

been?

has

another bracket to table

he

bought?

she

taken?

it

begun?


We use the Present Perfect for an action in the past with a result now:
 
- I` ve lost my passport. (= I can`t find my passport now)
- She` s (= she has) gone to bed. (= she is in bed now)
- We` ve bought a new car. (= we have a new car now)
- It`s Kay`s birthday tomorrow and I haven`t bought her a present.
- "Bob is on holiday." "Oh, where has he gone?"
- "Are they still having dinner?" "No, they` ve finished."
 

* The Past Participle of regular verbs is -ed:
clean → have clean ed finish → have finish ed stop → have stopp ed
 
The Past Participle of irregular verbs is sometimes the same as
the Past Simple and sometimes different. For example:
the same: lose → have lost make → have make have → have had
different: do → have done see → have seen write → have written
 

Present Perfect 2

Unit 16. Have you ever ...? (Present Perfect 2)


We use the Present Perfect have been/ have played/ have done etc. when we talk about a time from the past until now - for example, your life:
 

Unit 16. Have you ever ...? (Present Perfect 2)


- " Have you been to France?" ( in your life) "No, I haven`t."
- I` ve been to Canada but I haven`t been to the United States.
- She is an interesting person. She has done many different jobs and has visited many countries.
- I` ve seen that woman before but I can`t remember when.
- How many times has Brazil won the World Cup?
- " Have you read this book?" "Yes, I` ve read it twice." (= two times)
 
You can use the Present Perfect + ever ( in questions) and never:
 
- " Has Ann ever been to Australia?" "No, never."
- " Have you ever played golf?" "Yes, once." (= one time)
- My mother has never travelled by air.
- I` ve never ridden a horse.
 
gone and been
 

Unit 16. Have you ever ...? (Present Perfect 2)

Unit 16. Have you ever ...? (Present Perfect 2)

He`s gone to Spain.
(= he is in Spain now)

He`s been to Spain.
(= he went to Spain but now he is back)


Compare:
- I can`t find Susan. Where has she gone? (= Where is she now?)
- Oh, hello, Susan. I was looking for you. Where have you been?

Present Perfect 3

Jill is on holiday in London.
She arrived in London on Monday.
Today is Friday.
How long has she been in London?

She has been in London

reversed bracket to table

since Monday.
for four days.

Unit 17. How long have you ...? (Present Perfect 3)


 

 

She is in London now.

 

 

( is = present)

but

She has been in London

reversed bracket to table

since Monday.
for four days.

( has been = Present Perfect)


 

Unit 17. How long have you ...? (Present Perfect 3)


Compare:

Present Simple

Harry is in Canada.
 
Are you married?
 
Do you know Sarah?
 
 
Linda lives in London.
 
We have a car.
 

but

Present Perfect

He has been in Canada since April.
( not He is in Canada since April)
How long have you been married?
( not How long are you married?)
How long have you known her?
( not How long do you know her?)
I` ve known her for a long time.
How long has she lived in London?
She has lived there all her life.
How long have you had your car?
We` ve had it for a year.

Present Continuous

I` m learn ing German.
 
It` s rain ing.

but

Present Perfect Continuous ( have been -ing )

How long have you been learn ing German?
I` ve been learn ing German for six weeks.
It` s been (= it has been) rain ing since I got up this morning.