Regular and irregular verbs

  • Past Simple and Past Participle

The Past Simple and Past Participle of regular verbs is -ed:
clean → cleaned   live → lived   paint → painted
 
Past Simple:
I cleaned my shoes yesterday.
Charlie studied engineering at university.
 
We use the Past Participle for the Present Perfect and the Passive.
Present Perfect = have/has + Past Participle:
- I have cleaned my shoes.
- Joan has lived in London for ten years.
 
Passive = be (am/is/are/was/were) + Past Participle:
- These rooms are cleaned every day.
- My car was repaired last week.

  • Irregular verbs

The Past Simple and Past Participle of irregular verbs are not -ed:
 

 

make

break

cut

Past Simple

made

broke

cut

Past Participle

made

broken

cut


 
Sometimes the Past Simple and Past Participle are the same. For example:
 

 

make

find

buy

cut

Past Simple

made

found

bought

cut

Past Participle

made

found

bought

cut


- I made a cake yesterday. ( Past Simple)
- I have made some coffee. ( Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- Butter is made from milk. ( Past Participle - Present Passive)
 
Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different. For example:
 

 

break

know

begin

go

Past Simple

broke

knew

began

went

Past Participle

broken

known

begun

gone


- Somebody broke this window last night. ( Past Simple)
- Somebody has broken this window. ( Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- This window was broken last night. ( Past Participle - Past Passive)