Regular and irregular verbs
- Past Simple and Past Participle
The Past Simple and Past Participle of regular verbs is -ed:
clean → cleaned live → lived paint → painted
I cleaned my shoes yesterday.
Charlie studied engineering at university.
We use the Past Participle for the Present Perfect and the Passive.
Present Perfect = have/has + Past Participle:
- I have cleaned my shoes.
- Joan has lived in London for ten years.
Passive = be (am/is/are/was/were) + Past Participle:
- These rooms are cleaned every day.
- My car was repaired last week.
- Irregular verbs
The Past Simple and Past Participle of irregular verbs are not -ed:
Sometimes the Past Simple and Past Participle are the same. For example:
- I made a cake yesterday. ( Past Simple)
- I have made some coffee. ( Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- Butter is made from milk. ( Past Participle - Present Passive)
Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different. For example:
- Somebody broke this window last night. ( Past Simple)
- Somebody has broken this window. ( Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- This window was broken last night. ( Past Participle - Past Passive)