possibly, talkative, interrogative, intonation, the nature of question, evolution, to evolve, primary purpose, to sneer, enormous aid, to emerge.
|Possibly - возможно;
talkative - paзговорчивый;
interrogative - вопросительный;
intonation - интонация;
the nature of question - суть вопросов;
evolution - эволюция;
to evolve - эволюционировать, развиваться;
primary purpose - главная, важнейшая цель;
to sneer - ухмыляться, насмехаться;
enormous aid - огромная помощь;
to emerge - появляться, возникать;
modes of communication - способы коммуникации, общения.
Read the text and be ready to answer the questions given in the tasks.
Is Standard English necessary?
The other day in Glasgow I was driven to the airport by a talkative and inquisitive taxi-driver, who wanted to know (I think) what I felt about the city's beauties, weather, crime-rate and so forth. The trouble was, I could understand only about one word in 10 of what he said. I perceived his questions more by the interrogative note in his voice than by an understanding of their nature. So I used my stock device in such situations: "Ah-ha, but what do you think?"- which served its turn.
People sneer at Standard English pronunciation as "elitist", but the fact is that the development of such a clear and strictly regulated method of speech has been an enormous aid to the primary purpose of the language: communication. A Cornishman can barely understand a Glaswegian at all but both find Standard English comprehensible. All nations evolve by a process of cultural conquest from a central core. England emerged from the "Home Counties" (that is, the non-foreign counties), those bordering on London, plus Hertfordshire and Sussex. The people of these areas spoke the East Mercian dialect, which became the basis of modern English. The process was slow, because it was a matter not only of pronunciation but of different verbal forms.
By the second half of the 16th century, however, the matter was well on the way to being resolved. A form of Standard English was emerging. It is true as has been observed that great lords coming to courts from their regions, "carried their counties with them on their tongues".
But it was beginning to be recognized that there was a "proper" or correct way to pronounce English. However, it is not quite clear when orthodox pronunciation, termed in the 19th century the "Oxford" accent, became mandatory for social purposes.