(What People Say or Tell You to Do)
Look at this sentence: "I'm painting the house," said John.
Now look at this sentence and notice the changes: Charles spoke to Alan. John said he was painting the house.
When Charles reported to Alan what John said, the pronoun I became he and am (present) became (past).
We sometimes put that after said, but it isn't necessary: "John said (that) he was painting the house."
- When we report what someone has said, we usually make the following verb changes:
- Present Simple to Past Simple.
"I come here every week." - She said she came here every week.
- Present Continuous to Past Continuous.
"I'm painting the house." - He said he was painting the house.
- Past Simple or Present Perfect to Past Perfect (see Note below).
"I bought some new chairs in the sale." - She said she had bought some new chairs in the sale.
"I've seen that film twice." - He said he had seen that film twice.
- Am /is /are going to become was /were going to.
"We're going to meet in Paris." - She said they were going to meet in Paris.
- Will becomes would.
"I'll come early." - He said he would come early.
- Can becomes could.
"I can do all the exercises." - She said she could do all the exercises.
We only use the Past Perfect on special occasions, such as here with reported statements and also with reported questions. It is formed with the Simple Past of have (had) + Past Participle: Simple Past - I went, Past Perfect - I had gone.
- We also make changes with the pronouns, but this depends on who the reporting speaker is.
- I told Peter I liked playing netball. Here the pronoun I remains the same, because the reporting speaker is Joan - the same speaker.
- Joan told Peter she liked playing netball. Here we change the pronoun I to she, because there is a different reporting speaker.
"I like playing netball, Peter", Joan said.
Be careful with the pronoun change!
Reporting verbs: say and tell.
- We can use tell instead of say, but when we use tell, we want to know who the speaker told.
David told me he was painting the house.
Mary told Frank she could do all the exercises.
We always tell someone something.
- We use tell + the infinitive form to report orders.
"Close the door, please, John." - He told John to close the door.
When it is negative, we put not before the infinitive.
"Don't run so fast, Kate." - She told Kate not to run so fast.
В английском языке при переводе предложений из прямой речи в косвенную речь, необходимо изменить грамматическое время сказуемого согласно таблице, приведенной ниже. Данное правило работает только в том случае, если слова автора в прямой речи стоят в прошедшем времени.
При переводе предложений в косвенную речь не забывайте заменять обстоятельства времени, как указано в таблице.
|Direct speech||Reported Speech|
|yesterday||the day before|
|tomorrow||the next day|
|last year||the year before|
|last month||the month before|
Не забывайте изменять местоимения, например: "Joan told Peter she liked playing netball", said Mike.
Здесь мы заменили местоимение I на she, т.к. автор косвенной речи не совпадает с подлежащим в прямой речи.