Key Words:
keeping law and order, assistance, local, county, in certain circumstances, the signed permission of a magistrate, undergone intensive training, to make up, to safeguard public order, lost property, criminal, punishment.

Keeping law and order - поддерживать закон и порядок;
assistance - помощь;
local - местный;
county - графство;
in certain circumstances - при определенных обстоятельствах;
the signed permission of a magistrate - письменное разрешение судьи;
undergone intensive training - пройти интенсивную подготовку;
to make up - составлять;
to safeguard public order - охранять общественный порядок;
lost property - потерянная собственность;
criminal - преступник;
punishment - наказание.

Read the text and be ready to answer the questions given in the tasks.

The British Police.

          The British police officer - sometimes called the "bobby" after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force - is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen the British films. Policemen - and women - are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in the streets ("pounding the beat") or driving in cars (known as "panda cars" because of their distinctive markings). Few people realize, however, that the police in Britain are organized very differently from many other countries.
          Most countries, for example, have a national police force, which is controlled by central Government. Britain has no national police force, although the central Government's Home Office governs police policy. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority - a committee of local county councilors and magistrates.
          The forces co-operate with each other, but it is unusual for members of one force to operate in another's area unless they are asked to give assistance. This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious crime. A Chief Constable (the most senior police officer of a force) may sometimes ask for the assistance of London's police force, based at New Scotland Yard - known simply as "the Yard".
          In most countries, the police carry guns. The British police generally do not carry firearms, except in Northern Ireland. Only a few police are regularly armed - for instance, those who guard politicians and diplomats or who patrol airports. In certain circumstances specially trained police officers can be armed, but only with the signed permission of a magistrate.
          All members of the police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training. Like the army, there are a number of ranks: after the Chief Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. Women make up about 10 per cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables - members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week.
          Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Members of CIDs are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms. (The other ununiformed people you see in British towns are traffic wardens. Their job is to make sure that drivers obey parking regulations. They have no other powers - it is the police who are responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving.)
          The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safeguarding public order and dealing with lost property. One of their main functions is, of course, apprehending criminals and would be criminals.

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